La tech qui fait rajeunir De Niro de 25 ans, souris guérie du cancer, première chimère singe-cochon, & more !

Bonjour à vous,

Vous recevez la newsletter Parlons Futur : chaque semaine (ou presque) une sélection de news résumées en bullet points sur des sujets tech, science, éco pour mieux appréhender le futur.

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Je m'appelle Thomas, plus d'infos sur moi en bas d'email.

Voici donc ma veille de la semaine passée :)

L'apéro

  • Le journal Le Monde raconte sa tentative de produire un Deepfake (remplacer le visage de Jean Dujardin par celui d'Emmanuel Macron dans une séquence d'OSS 117)

    • Conclusion : oui, « n’importe qui » peut aujourd’hui réaliser un deepfake. Encore faut-il être sacrément motivé, patient face à ces tâches fastidieuses, et donc disposer de temps devant soi et d'une machine de gameur. Le deepfake réussi en trois clics, qui permettrait à tout un chacun de diffuser de fausses images de Donald Trump ou de se venger de son ex avec une vidéo pornographique, relève encore de la science-fiction – du moins pour le moment

  • Le cochon, la viande la plus écolo ?

    • Because pigs require no pasture, and are efficient at converting feed into flesh, pork is among the greenest of meats. Cattle are usually much less efficient, although they can be farmed in different ways. And because cows are ruminants, they belch methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. A study of American farm data in 2014 estimated that, calorie for calorie, beef production requires 3 times as much animal feed as pork production and produces almost 5 times as much greenhouse gases. Other estimates suggest it uses 2.5  times as much water.

  • Voilà ce qui se passe quand les anti-vaccins se font entendre : The island nation of Samoa is in the midst of a devastating measles (rougeole) outbreak

    • the measles outbreak has killed 60 people, Ars Technica reported, with 52 of those being children under the age of four. An additional 4,052 people have fallen ill, which is a huge number for a nation with a population of around 200,000.

    • As for why Samoa is experiencing this outbreak, the nation’s measles vaccination rate for infants was just 31% in 2018, according to World Health Organization data, representing a huge drop from its 90% rate in 2013.

    • The WHO notes that the public’s reluctance to vaccinate could be related to the deaths of 2 infants in 2018, who died on the same day after receiving a vaccine.

    • The nurses who mixed the drug in with the vaccines were caught and are now in prison, but anti-vaxx organizations picked up on the story, using it to stoke fears of vaccinations.

    • Now, Samoa’s government is trying desperately to contain a measles outbreak that’s claiming more lives by the day — all while anti-vaxxers compare their efforts to Nazi Germany and try to convince Samoans they just need a bit more Vitamin A in their diet.

  • Between 2000 and 2016, world pasture area fell an estimated 74 million hectares, roughly the size of Chile. (Peak Pasture)

    • (pasture area : les pâturages, zone où l'on fait paître les bêtes qu'on élève pour leur viande ou leur lait)

  • Yes, China is probably outspending the US in AI—but not on defense : new estimates from the Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET) show that China is likely spending far less on AI than previously assumed. Additionally, most of its AI money seems to be going to non-military-related research, such as fundamental algorithm development, robotics research, and smart-infrastructure development. By contrast, the US’s planned spending for fiscal year 2020 allocates the majority of its AI budget to defense, which means it could possibly outspend China in that category

  • 97% of the observable Universe is already unreachable from Earth, even for an explorer setting out today and travelling at the speed of light.

Au menu dans l'ordre

Résumées plus bas à même cet email, les 11 news suivantes :

  • New York-Londres en 3 heures 15 minutes bientôt possible grâce à la nouvelle génération d'avions supersoniques

  • Comment l'IA, la réalité augmentée, les drones et l'impression 3D pourraient révolutionner la mode d'ici 2030

  • Après un passage aux toilettes catastrophique sur l'Everest, elle invente des toilettes révolutionnaires pour les pays émergents

  • H2O.ai : cette plateforme d'IA automatisée qui défie Google

  • Découvrez la technologie qui a permis à Martin Scorcese de faire rajeunir de 25 ans Robert de Niro, Al Pacino et Joe Pesci dans son dernier film The Irishman

  • Premières chimères singe-cochon nées dans un labo en Chine, une des étapes avant de pouvoir élever des organes humains dans des cochons

  • Aux US, une victime noire désarmée tombant sous les balles de la police a un impact négatif sur les grossesses des femmes noires des environs, les détails à retenir de l’étude

  • Les biais des algorithmes sont plus faciles à corriger que ceux des humains, explique l'auteur d'études de référence sur les biais des algos

  • Un nouveau traitement a permis de guérir chez la souris un cancer du pancréas en 2 semaines, les essais sur les humains prévus dans 2 ans

  • Découvrez l'Énergie Bleue : là où eau salée et eau douce se rencontrent à l'embouchure des fleuves et rivières, des réactions chimiques recèlent un potential équivalent à 2000 centrales nucléaires

  • Ce neurone artificiel pourrait permettre de réparer certaines lésions du cerveau

Pour les 2 news suivantes, retrouvez les résumés sur ParlonsFutur.com en cliquant ici

Trou Normand

Cette newsletter est gratuite, mais si vous souhaitez m'encourager à continuer ce modeste travail de synthèse, vous pouvez simplement :

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À table !

New York-Londres en 3 heures 15 minutes bientôt possible grâce à la nouvelle génération d'avions supersoniques (CNN)

  • In Denver, Colorado, a 55-75 seater supersonic airliner named Overture

  • The aircraft, designed to cruise at 2300km/h, has a price tag of $200 million, and has already garnered $6 billion worth of pre-orders for 10 Overtures from Virgin Group and 20 from Japan Airlines. Japan's national airline also invested $10 million in Boom in 2017

  • Overture will begin flight testing in the mid-2020s.

  • Earlier in 2019 the company formed a partnership with Prometheus Fuels, a company that's using clean energy to make zero-net carbon fuels out of carbon dioxide that is already in the atmosphere.

  • Regarding noise, Blake Scholl, founder and CEO of Boom Supersonic, says that the impact of Overture on airport communities will be similar to the quietest aircraft it replaces.

  • In addition, Overture flights will focus on more than 500 primarily transoceanic routes that benefit from the aircraft's  2300km/h speeds -- such as New York to London or San Francisco to Tokyo.

  • The plan is that Overture will cruise at subsonic over land, meaning no sonic boom will affect populated areas, and cruise supersonically only over water.

  • "On Overture, same-day transatlantic business trips become possible," says the CEO

  • Carriers operating Boom's airliner will be able to offer profitably fares similar to the business-class, long-haul ticket prices seen today," claims the Boom CEO. "For a one-way trip from New York to London, this means that the airliner can turn a profit at fare levels around $2,500.


Comment l'IA, la réalité augmentée, les drones et l'impression 3D pourraient révolutionner la mode d'ici 2030 (Peter Diamandis)

  • Welcome to April 21, 2029, a sunny day in Dallas. You’ve got an important event tomorrow, but nothing to wear. The last thing you want to do is spend the day at the mall.

  • No sweat. Your body image data is still current, as you were scanned only a week ago. Put on your VR headset and have a conversation with your AI. “It’s time to buy a dress for tomorrow’s event” is all you have to say. In a moment, you’re teleported to a virtual clothing store. Zero travel time. No freeway traffic, parking hassles, or angry hordes wielding baby strollers.

  • Instead, you’ve entered your own personal clothing store. Everything is in your exact size…. And I mean everything. The store has access to nearly every designer and style on the planet. Ask your AI to show you what’s hot in Shanghai, and presto—instant fashion show. Every model strutting down the runway looks exactly like you, only dressed in Shanghai’s latest.

  • When you’re done selecting an outfit, your AI pays the bill. And as your new clothes are being 3D printed at a warehouse—before speeding your way via drone delivery—a digital version has been added to your personal inventory for use at future virtual events.

  • The cost? Thanks to an era of no middlemen, less than half of what you pay in stores today. Yet this future is not all that far off…


Après un passage aux toilettes catastrophique sur l'Everest, elle invente des toilettes révolutionnaires pour les pays émergents (CNN)

  • The toilet works by adding a microbe solution to the waste chamber. The microbes break down human solids -- normally in three to four days -- leaving behind "ashes," while liquid waste is turned into liquid fertilizer, which can be extracted via an outlet, Zaharin, the inventor, explains. EcoLoo recommends the microbe solution is topped up once a month and costs $60 for a year's supply.

  • EcoLoo claims it's less energy-intensive than a regular toilet because there's no waste water to separate and process. And before you ask, no, it doesn't smell, says Zaharin -- the bacterial process prevents bad odors from building in the tank.

  • The toilet range, priced between $800-$2,500, has gone on to win a clutch of awards and sell over 2,000 units in 21 countries. Notable examples include units installed at Petra, the UNESCO World Heritage Site in Jordan.

  • Zaharin says the EcoLoo could potentially play a role in disaster relief efforts when sanitation issues, often related to contaminated water supplies, cause diseases to spread rapidly.

  • Of course, it's not the only waterless toilet on the block. Models have been around for decades in the developed world in one shape or form, incinerating, freezing or composting waste. But EcoLoo believes its low-energy product could have wide appeal.

  •  Diarrhea linked to inadequate sanitation causes an estimated 432,000 deaths every year, says the UN.


H2O.ai : cette plateforme d'IA automatisée qui défie Google (Journal du Net)

  • Fondé en 2012 en Californie, H2O.ai se donne pour mission de démocratiser l'intelligence artificielle en entreprise. Pour répondre à ce défi, la société a mis au point une plateforme qui automatise la création de modèles de machine learning. Son produit se classe ainsi dans la même catégorie que l'offre AutoML de Google

  • Comptant 200 salariés, H2O.ai a levé 147 millions de dollars depuis sa création. Bouclé en août 2019, son dernier tour de table s'élève à 72,5 millions de dollars. En Europe, la société a ouvert des bureaux à Munich et Paris.

  • Pour chaque grand secteur d'activité, H2O.ai met en avant plusieurs scénarios d'usage : recommandation de produits, scoring de lead ou optimisation du pricing dans le retail ; détection de fraudes, scoring de risques, prédiction du churn dans la finance ; optimisation de la supply chain, maintenance et fabrication prédictive dans le manufacturing, etc

  • Comparé à Google AutoML, l'un des principaux points forts de notre offre réside dans son positionnement open source mais aussi dans la grande variété des modules que nous proposons. A la différence du service cloud de Google, notre plateforme peut s'installer partout, sur un cloud privé, public, sur un cluster de serveurs dédiés...", analyse Sri Ambati, CEO et cofondateur de H2O.ai.

  • H2O.ai revendique 20 000 organisations utilisant sa plateforme open source dont 135 clients payant. "Il s'agit à la fois de grands groupes du Fortune 100 mais aussi d'entreprises de taille plus modestes ainsi que des start-up"

  • La priorité de H2O.ai en termes de R&D ? Faire en sorte que son produit soit toujours plus facile à prendre en main et surtout directement utilisable par les équipes business.

  • Le responsable de l'équipe de data science de H2O.ai, Olivier Grellier, est français et basé en France.

  • 2 enseignements clefs :

    • il n'y a pas que les GAFA qui peuvent proposer des services liés à l'IA compétitifs

    • la prise en main de l'IA devrait devenir de plus en plus facile, et non plus réservée aux seuls docteurs en informatique

    • bref, l'IA devient doucement et sûrement une "commodity" dont toutes les entrprises vont pouvoir s'emparer pour optimiser leur fonctionnement


Voici la technologie qui a permis à Martin Scorcese de faire rajeunir de 25 ans Robert de Niro, Al Pacino et Joe Pesci dans son dernier film The Irishman (Wired)

  • The film takes place from 1949 to 2000, and it goes back and forth in time continuously,” Scorsese says.

  •  “The problem is, by the time I was ready to make the film, Bob De Niro, Al Pacino, and Joe Pesci can no longer play these characters younger in makeup.”

  • So, when Pablo Helman, one of Industrial Light & Magic’s veteran visual effects supervisors, said he could do it more au naturel, the director was intrigued. “I said, ‘I don’t know. I can’t have the actors talking to each other with golf balls on their faces. It gets in the way of the actors, and the kind of film this is, they need to play off of each other. If you can find a way to lessen the technical aspects of it, it could work.’”

  • Helman and Scorsese asked De Niro to come in for a day and reshoot a scene from Goodfellas (Les Affranchis en France). If Helman could make the actor, then in his early seventies, look the way he did 25 years earlier as Jimmy Conway, then his company ILM could pull off de-aging the film’s principal cast. Helman spent 10 weeks working on the test scene. In the end, De Niro looked like he did in 1990. “That green-lit the movie," Helman says

  • The equipment had a standard director’s camera in the center, and on either side were two film-grade Alexa Mini cameras outfitted to shoot infrared images, capturing all the volumetric information normally picked up by those dots Scorsese didn’t want to use.

  • The equipment was big, initially about 38kg, but working with the camera company Arri, Helman was able to cut it down to 29kg while also making it about 76cm wide (5cm narrower than standard door frames) 

  • They created a piece of software called Flux that combines the infrared information with the images from the main camera to create masks on each actor’s face.

  • It required hours upon hours of work. To create the various ages for someone like Frank Sheeran (played by De Niro), who goes from his early forties to his eighties in the movie, the team cataloged thousands of frames from movies ranging from Goodfellas to Casino.

  • They then made catalogs of images of noses, eyes, and mouths that they would use to make de-aged faces that could be placed into each scene.

  • ILM also developed an artificial intelligence system that would take any frame they made and scour the full image library in an instant to give them reference images of what the actor should look like so that the team could check their work.

  • Developing the de-aging process on The Irishman took two years. Finishing the whole film took twice that long.

  • The result is a movie that spans five decades and has Pesci, De Niro, and Pacino playing their characters throughout, in performances that look, if not 100% real, then just about emerging from the uncanny valley. (The New York Film Critics Circle just named The Irishman its best picture.)


Premières chimères singe-cochon née dans un labo en Chine, une des étapes avant de pouvoir élever des organes humains dans des cochons (New Scientist)

  • To create the pig-monkey chimeras, Hai and his team grew a monkey cell culture, derived embryonic stem cells (cellules soucges de l'embryon) from it, and injected them into pig embryos four days after fertilization

  • The results leave something to be desired. Only two out of ten piglets turned out to be chimeras. The team had to implant more than 4,000 embryos to get to these results.

  • This piglet that were born had some cells from a monkey but died within a week of birth

  • In the chimeric piglets, multiple tissues – including in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and skin – partly consisted of monkey cells, but the proportion was low: between one in 1000 and one in 10,000.

  • It is unclear why the piglets died, says Hai, but because the non-chimeric pigs died as well, the team suspects it is to do with the IVF process rather than the chimerism.

  • The team is now trying to create healthy animals with a higher proportion of monkey cells, says Hai. If that is successful, the next step would be to try to create pigs in which one organ is composed almost entirely of primate cells.

  • Something like this has already been achieved in rodents. In 2010, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, now at Stanford University in California, created mice with rat pancreases by genetically modifying the mice so their own cells couldn’t develop into a pancreas.

  • In 2017, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte’s team at the Salk Institute in California created pig-human chimeras, but only around one in 100,000 cells were human and, for ethical reasons, the embryos were only allowed to develop for a month. The concern is that a chimera’s brain could be partly human.

  • Le cochon serait l'animal idéal dans lequel "élever" des orgaines humains selon les chercheurs, car les organes des deux espèces ont à peu près les mêmes dimensions. (mmm, mais à part ça tout va bien)


Aux US, une victime noire désarmée tombant sous les balles de la police a un impact négatif sur les grossesses des femmes noires des environs (Wired)

  • police killings of unarmed black victims have an effect on black women in those communities, namely during the first and second trimester of their pregnancies. Later, when those babies were born, they had a lower birth weight on average than is typical for black babies. The infants also were more likely to be born several weeks early. The closer geographically mothers were to the shootings, the more severe the impact

  • White and Hispanic infants didn’t seem to be affected, and police shootings of unarmed victims of other races didn’t produce a strong effect either. He also didn’t find the same impacts when the black victims were armed.

  • Legewie even examined siblings, comparing women who had two pregnancies, one that coincided with a nearby police shooting and one that did not. He found that even in the same families, babies in utero close to a police shooting had worse outcomes than their siblings.

  • Legewie speculates that killings of unarmed victims are reminders of discrimination, which can exacerbate “stress and anxiety related to perceived injustice.”


Les biais des algorithmes sont plus faciles à corriger que ceux des humains, explique l'auteur d'études de référence sur les biais des algos (New York Times)

  • At similar levels of sickness, black patients were deemed to be at lower risk than white patients. The magnitude of the distortion was immense: Eliminating the algorithmic bias would more than double the number of black patients who would receive extra help. The problem lay in a subtle engineering choice: to measure “sickness,” they used the most readily available data, health care expenditures. But because society spends less on black patients than equally sick white ones, the algorithm understated the black patients’ true needs.

  • uncovering algorithmic discrimination here was very simple. It was a statistical exercise — the equivalent of asking the algorithm “what would you do with this patient?” hundreds of thousands of times, and mapping out the racial differences. The work was technical and rote, requiring neither stealth nor resourcefulness.

  • Humans are inscrutable in a way that algorithms are not. Our explanations for our behavior are shifting and constructed after the fact. To measure racial discrimination by people, we must create controlled circumstances in the real world where only race differs. For an algorithm, we can create equally controlled just by feeding it the right data and observing its behavior.

  • Algorithms and humans also differ on what can be done about bias once it is found.

  • With our résumé study, fixing the problem has proved to be extremely difficult. For one, having found bias on average didn’t tell us that any one firm was at fault, though recent research is finding clever ways to detect discrimination.

  • Another problem with human bias is more fundamental. Changing people’s hearts and minds is no simple matter. For example, implicit bias training appears to have a modest impact at best.

  • By contrast, we’ve already built a prototype that would fix the algorithmic bias we found — as did the original manufacturer, who, we concluded, had no intention of producing biased results in the first place. We offered a free service to health systems using these algorithms to help build a new one that was not racially biased. There were many takers.

  • Changing algorithms is easier than changing people: software on computers can be updated; the “wetware” in our brains has so far proven much less pliable.

  • with proper regulation, algorithms can help to reduce discrimination.


Un nouveau traitement a permis de guérir chez la souris un cancer du pancréas en 2 semaines, les essais sur les humains prévus dans 2 ans

  • After just two weeks of daily injections, a new treatment reduced the number of cancerous pancreatic cells in mice by up to 90%

  • After implanting human pancreatic cancer into immune-suppressed mice, the team intravenously injected the treatment for 14 days.

  • Only 30 days after the treatment ended, an 80-90% reduction in cancer cells was observed, accompanied by zero negative impacts to healthy cells.

  • Pancreatic cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to treat, and few patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis.

  • Today, most treatment options involve chemotherapy, a systemic approach aimed at halting cell division in the entire body. Yet because this form of therapy lacks discriminatory targeting, cell replication slows across the entire body, causing many patients to experience negative side effects like hair loss, inflammation of the digestive tract, and decreased blood cell production.

  • A solution like this one, which specifically targets only cancer cells, could revolutionize cancer therapy and significantly enhance patient quality of life.

  • Venturing beyond pancreatic cancer, the team even successfully tested the treatment on cell cultures of aggressive forms of breast, lung, brain and ovarian cancer.

  • According to the team, this treatment is about 2 years away from human trials, potentially promising a major boost to healthy human lifespans.


Découvrez l'Énergie Bleue : là où eau salée et eau douce se rencontrent à l'embouchure des fleuves et rivières, des réactions chimiques recèlent un potential équivalent à 2000 centrales nucléaires

  • All blue energy approaches rely on the fact that salts are composed of ions, or chemicals that harbor a positive or negative charge. In solids, the positive and negative charges attract one another, binding the ions together. (Table salt, for example, is a compound made from positively charged sodium ions bound to negatively charged chloride ions.) In water, these ions detach and can move independently.

  • By pumping the positive ions—like sodium or potassium—to the other side of a semipermeable membrane, researchers can create two pools of water: one with a positive charge, and one with a negative charge. If they then dunk electrodes in the pools and connect them with a wire, electrons will flow from the negatively charged to the positively charged side, generating electricity.

  • The charge imbalance between the two sides of the first such semipermeable membrane, designed by French researchers, is so strong that it is estimated that 1m2 of the membrane—packed with millions of pores per cm2 —could generate enough per year to power 3 homes.

  • Other scientists have have developed a new iteration of the tech, and offered hope that the energy-capturing film can be manufactured in big enough pieces to be worthwhile.


Ce neurone artificiel pourrait permettre de réparer certaines lésions du cerveau

  • Imagine, for example, if a brain injury could be repaired with a computer chip. That may not be too far off; this week, researchers reported on a “solid-state neuron” that accurately model sthe behavior of biological nerve cells. In a paper in Nature Communications, the team says the devices could be plugged into biological neural circuits to repair damage or disease.

  • “Until now neurons have been like black boxes, but we have managed to open the black box and peer inside,” project leader Alain Nogaret, from the University of Bath in the UK, said in a press release. “Our work is paradigm-changing because it provides a robust method to reproduce the electrical properties of real neurons in minute detail.”

  • To test their chips, they subjected them to 60 different stimulation protocols and compared their responses to those seen in rat hippocampal and brain stem neurons. The chips achieved a 94% accuracy.

  • Critically, the bionic neurons use just 140 nanoWatts of power—a billionth the amount of a regular microprocessor, which makes them much more practical for long-term applications inside the body. Each chip is roughly 0.1 millimeters in diameter, but many of them would need to be combined to create a practical implant, which would be a few millimeters wide.

  • That could make it possible to repair defective circuits that cause conditions like heart failure and sleep apnea, but could also potentially replace damaged nerves caused by spinal injuries or help connect robotic limbs to people’s nervous systems, the researchers told The Guardian.

  • One potential limitation is that the bionic neurons do not replicate the complex connectivity of real ones. Their model doesn’t cover the many branching dendrites that connect neurons to each other, and adding those dynamics might require further components.

  • The researchers also say they are a long way from replicating larger, more complex brain circuits, and light years off from being able to reproduce an entire brain.


Pour les 2 news suivantes, retrouvez les résumés sur ParlonsFutur.com en cliquant ici


Dessert : voici quelques-uns de mes derniers tweets (retrouvez-moi sur Twitter ici) :

  • A drop in deliveries of subsidised oil from Venezuela led to fuel shortages in Cuba in September. In response, the government cut bus services, suspended manufacturing and urged farmers to use oxen instead of tractors.

  • Speaking broadly about America’s role in the world versus China’s, a senior Indian diplomat remarked: “America has been fighting without winning for 20 years. China has been winning without fighting for 20 years.”

  • between 1990 and 2015, the area of forest in Europe has increased by 8%.

  • In China, exports are worth about 20% of gdp. In South Korea it is more like 45%; in Taiwan, 65%; and in Singapore and Hong Kong, closer to 200%.

  • As Linus Blomqvist of the ecomodernist think tank Breakthrough Institute puts it, “A diet including chicken and pork, but no dairy or beef, has lower greenhouse gas emissions than a vegetarian diet that includes milk and cheese, and is almost as good as a vegan diet.”


Café ? Voici les liens vers les dernières newsletters, just in case ;)

L'addition ?

Cette newsletter est gratuite, mais si vous souhaitez m'encourager à continuer ce modeste travail de synthèse, vous pouvez simplement :

  • étoiler ce mail et/ou y répondre d'un mot, pour que les algos des messageries comprennent que ce n'est pas du spam (j'espère), cela permettra une meilleure distribution!

  • forwarder cet email à quelques ami(e)s et collègues avec un petit mot, voire de les inscrire directement ici !

Merci d'avance :)

Quelques mots sur le cuisto

  • J'ai écrit plus de 50 articles ces dernières années, à retrouver ici, dont une bonne partie publiés dans des médias comme le Journal du Net (mes chroniques ici), le Huffington Post, L'Express, Les Échos.

  • Je suis CEO et co-fondateur de l'agence digitale KRDS, nous avons des bureaux dans 6 pays entre la France et l'Asie. Je suis basé à Singapour (mon Linkedin), également membre du conseil d'administration du think tank Live with AI qui entend chercher à comprendre comment nous pourrons apprendre à vivre avec l'intelligence artificielle et mieux anticiper les changements qu'elle va apporter.

C'est tout pour cette semaine !

Merci et bonne semaine,

Thomas

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