L'école qui paie ses étudiants ; prothèse dopée à l'IA ; ville lunaire & 19 autres news du futur résumées pour vous

Bonjour à vous,

Vous recevez la newsletter Parlons Futur : chaque semaine (ou presque) une sélection de news résumées en bullet points sur des sujets tech, science, éco pour mieux appréhender le futur.

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Je m'appelle Thomas, plus d'infos sur moi en bas d'email.

Voici donc ma veille de la semaine passée :)

L'apéro !

Waymo de Alphabet/Google annonce à ses 400 beta-testeurs en Arizona que les voitures complètement sans pilote sont pour très bientôt

Très bonne vidéo du Wall Street Journal qui montre comment la Chine expérimente avec l'IA dans les salles de classe

Les travaux récompensés par le Prix Nobel de médecine "ouvrent des voies hyper prometteuses pour le traitement des maladies cardio-vasculaires -- en permettant d'augmenter l'oxygénation des cellules -- ou dans celui de certains cancers à progression rapide en privant les tumeurs d'oxygène afin d'empêcher leur prolifération. (newsletter TTSO)

Une entreprise rwandaise va commercialiser les deux premiers smartphones entièrement fabriqués en Afrique

Le saviez-vous : la spiruline est une micro-algue apparue sur Terre il y a 3,5 milliards d'années. Contenant presque tous les nutriments dont l'Homme a besoin, elle a été déclarée "meilleure nourriture du futur" par l'OMS en 1974. Compte tenu de sa faible consommation en eau, la NASA compte la cultiver sur Mars.

Manifestations à Hong Kong : un projet artistique de serre-tête projetant un visage virtuel pour tromper les caméras de surveillance refait surface (voir la vidéo de 2 min sur Youtube)

Ma dernière tribune parue dans le Journal du Net : Ce que Gaspard Koenig et Laurent Alexandre ne comprennent pas sur l'IA (et les données)

  • Lors d'un débat sur l'IA, Gaspard Koenig a fait de la propriété privée des données personnelles le levier de résistance face à l'IA

  • tandis que Laurent Alexandre ne jure que par les volumes de data et prédit une capitalisation numérique de l'Europe face aux US et la Chine.

  • J'ai détaillé dans cette tribune pourquoi ils se fourvoient

Au menu dans l'ordre

  • Mark Zuckerberg confirme que Facebook entend produire un appareil permettant de détecter dans notre cerveau ce qu'on veut dire ou cliquer

  • Cette prothèse dopée à l'IA pourra être contrôlée avec précision par les amputés (Techcrunch)

  • Cette bague connectée capte 20 fois plus d'infos de santé par seconde que la concurrence

  • Comment le jeu vidéo Fortnite ruine la vie de nombreux ados aux US

  • Voici les progrès vertigineux en impression 3D depuis les années 80

  • Sur la lune, il sera plus simple de construire des villes sous terre dans des tubes de lave, certains de 5km de diamètre et de plus de 100km de long

  • Stuart Russel, un des pionniers de l'IA aux Etats-Unis, vient de publier un nouveau livre "Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control", en voici le résumé

  • Les progrès techniques de l'Iran en balistisque bouleversent la donne au Moyen Orient, certains parlent du “Pearl Harbor” du Moyen Orient (New York times)

  • Bill Gates : "je prédis que la santé des humains va changer drastiquement pour le meilleur dans les 20 prochaines années pour ces 2 raisons"

  • Contre-intuitif : l'électrisation ne change pas la vie des pauvres autant qu'on le pensait (The Economist)

  • Lambda School : cette école n'est pas juste gratuite, elle paie ses étudiants pendant leurs études, et 85% trouvent en 6 mois max un job payant au moins $50/an

  • La France va lancer dès novembre Alicem, qui permet de se créer un identifiant en ligne authentifié grâce à la reconnaissance faciale (Bloomberg)

  • Avenir du travail : cette étude portant sur 36 500 entreprises et 5 millions de salariés entre 2000 et 2016 aux Pays-Bas montrent les ravages progressifs de l'automatisation sur l'emploi

  • L'économiste Mariana Mazzucato explique comment on sous-estime le rôle moteur de l'état-stratège dans le succès des géants de la tech et annonce ses 5 missions que le Parlement Européen a votées

  • Voici comment John Deere, entreprise américaine fondée en 1837 et spécialisée dans la fabrication de matériel agricole se révolutionne grâce à l'IA

  • Ces chercheurs estiment l'impact sur le monde d'une guerre nucléaire Inde-Pakistan

À table !

Mark Zuckerberg confirme que Facebook entend produire un appareil permettant de détecter dans notre cerveau ce qu'on veut dire ou cliquer

  • “The goal is to eventually make it so that you can think something and control something in virtual or augmented reality,” said Zuckerberg

  • The news comes after Facebook purchased brain-computer interface startup CTRL-labs for nearly a billion dollars in September.

  • the technology is still in its very early stages and the reality, according to Zuckerberg, is that wearables that only touch the surface of your skin will likely be limited in functionality.

  • “I have enough neural capacity in my motor neurons to probably control another extra hand, it’s just a matter of training that and then they can pick up those signals off of the wrist,” Zuckerberg said.

  • “But if your ability to translate things that are going on in your brain into motor activity is limited then you need something implanted.”


Cette prothèse dopée à l'IA pourra être contrôlée avec précision par les amputés (tiré de Techcrunch)

  • Prosthesis users train a machine learning model by having it observe their muscle signals while attempting various motions and grips as best they can without the actual hand to do it with

  • The result is that the object is grasped strongly but gently for as long as the user continues gripping it with, essentially, their will.

  • When they’re done with the object, having taken a sip of coffee or moved a piece of fruit from a bowl to a plate, they “release” the object and the system senses this change in their muscles’ signals and does the same.


Cette bague connectée capte 20 fois plus d'infos de santé par seconde que la concurrence

  • Fitbit and the Apple Watch, for instance, measure blood flow in the wrist via an optical sensor. Yet the wrist’s arteries sit too far below the surface for perfect measurement, and people don’t often wear watches to bed—as smart watches can interrupt the very sleep they’re designed to measure.

  • Because the finger’s arteries are closer to the surface than those in the wrist, the Oura ring gets a far better picture of the action. Plus, while Apple and Garamond measure blood flow twice a second, and Fitbit even raises this figure to 12x/second, the Oura ring captures data at 250 times per second.

  • in studies conducted by independent labs, the ring is 99% accurate compared to medical grade heart rate trackers, and 98% accurate for heart rate variability.

  • 20 years ago, sensors with this level of accuracy would have cost in the millions, requiring reasonably sized data centers and tremendous overheard processing costs.

  • Today, the Oura ring costs around $300 and sits on your finger—a perfect example of sensors’ exponential growth (voir vidéo)


Comment le jeu vidéo Fortnite ruine la vie de nombreux ados aux US

  • One parent claims that their 10-year-old son has been playing the game almost daily for months and becomes “very frustrated and angry” whenever the parent tries to limit his playing time.

  • The other parent says in the filing that their 15-year-old son “quickly developed an addiction to ‘Fortnite.'”

  • The lawsuit goes on to note that some “Fortnite” players “don’t eat or shower, and no longer socialize.”

  • Comment la Chine gère de son côté le problème des jeux vidéos addictifs :

    • Le Gouvernement chinois, jugeant les jeux vidéos en ligne produits par Tencent (qui édite par ailleurs la plateforme sociale WeChat) trop addictifs, avait tout simplement interdit la publication de nouveaux jeux, craignant pour la santé mentale (et visuelle, les jeux développant la myopie) des adolescents, et que ces jeux les détournent de leurs études

    • Cette interdiction a duré 9 mois et pénalisé brutalement Tencent en bourse, preuve que la Chine sait aussi punir ses géants de la tech, et ce même dans un contexte de lutte acharnée avec les Etats-Unis

    • L'interdiction a finalement été levée quand Tencent a accepté les mesures imposées par le gouvernement : à savoir limiter le temps de jeu des jeunes :

      • Children under 12 were only allowed one hour of daily play and were banned from logging in after 9pm. Players age 12 to 18 are allowed up to two hours.

      •  des limites amenées à être contrôlées grâce à l'usage de la reconnaissance faciale


L'impression 3D a fait des progrès vertigineux depuis les années 80 :

  • in the 80s, 3D printers were clunky, slow, hard to program, easy to break, and worked with only one material: plastic

  • in 2007, when what was once a several-100,000-dollar machine became available for under $10,000.

  • We can now print in over 500 different materials, in full color, in metals, rubber, plastic, glass, concrete, and even in organic materials, such as cells, leather, and chocolate

  • 2017 was the year that additive manufacturing entered its disruptive phase. Between 2007 and 2017, printing speeds had increased 150-fold, the variety of materials had increased 500-fold, and printers themselves could now be purchased for under $1,000.

  • By building up objects one layer at a time, the process uses 10 percent of the raw materials of traditional manufacturing.

  • GE’s advanced turboprop (turbine pour avion), for instance, once contained 855 individually milled components. Today, with 3D printing, it has 12. The upside? 50kg of weight reduction and a 20% improvement in fuel burn.

  • last year a Jordanian hospital introduced a program that can fit and build a 3D-printed prosthetic for an amputee in only 24 hours for less than US$20.

  • Back in 2002, scientists at Wake Forest University 3D printed the first kidney capable of filtering blood and producing urine.

  • In 2010, Organovo, a San Diego-based bioprinting outfit, created the first blood vessel.

  • And today, San Francisco-based 3D tissue printing company Prellis Biologics is achieving record speeds in its pursuit of printed human tissue with viable capillaries.

  • In 2014, the Chinese company WinSun successfully 3D-printed 10 single family homes in under 24 hours, each costing less than $5000.

  • A few months later, WinSun was at it again, printing a 5-story apartment complex in the course of a mere weekend.

  • And in 2017, a different Chinese company combined 3D printing with modular construction to erect a 57-story skyscraper in 19 days.

  • Devita’s printer erects a 400-800 square-foot home in 48 hours at the cost of about $4,000. But these homes aren’t bunkers—they consist of nifty modern designs complete with wrap-around porches.


Sur la lune, il sera plus simple de construire des villes sous terre dans des tubes de lave, certains de 5km de diamètre et de plus de 100km de long


Stuart Russel, un des pionniers de l'IA aux Etats-Unis, vient de publier un nouveau livre "Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control", en voici plus bas le résumé du résumé fait par Max Tegmark, cosmologiste du MIT et auteur du livre de référence Life 3.0

  • 1) THE PROBLEM: Russell argues that intelligence isn't something mysterious that can only exist in biological organisms, but instead involves information processing that can in principle be performed even better by future machines. He also argues that this is likely to happen, because curiosity and profit will continue to inexorably drive today's rapid pace of AI development until it eventually reaches the level of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), defined as AI that can perform all intellectual tasks at least as well as humans. 

    • Russell argues that the real risk with AGI isn't malice, like in silly Hollywood movies, but competence: machines that succeed in accomplishing goals that aren't aligned with ours

    • Stuart argues that we need to sound the alarm: if AI research succeeds in its original goal of building AGI, then whoever or whatever controls it may be able to take control of Earth much as Homo sapiens took control from other less intelligent mammals, so we better ensure that humanity does better than the Neanderthals did.

  • 2) THE SOLUTION: The "standard model" of AI is to give a machine learning system a goal, and then train it using lots of data to get as good as possible at accomplishing that goal.

    • Sometimes, you later realize that this goal wasn't exactly what you wanted; for example. But if such a value-misaligned AI is smarter than us and has copied itself all over the internet, it's not easy to switch it off, and it may actively try to thwart you switching it off because that would prevent it from achieving its goal.

    • Stuart's radical solution is to ditch the standard model altogether for sufficiently powerful AI-systems, training them to accomplish not a fixed goal they've been given, but instead to accomplish *your* goal, whatever that is.

    • since the IA can't be sure that it has fully understood your goals, it will actively try to learn more about what you really want, and always be open to you redirecting it or even switching it off.


Les progrès techniques de l'Iran en balistisque bouleversent la donne au Moyen Orient, certains parlent du “Pearl Harbor” du Moyen Orient (tribune de Thomas Friedman dans le New York times)

  • In the early hours of Sept. 14, the Iranian Air Force launched roughly 20 drones and cruise missiles at one of Saudi Arabia’s most important oil fields and processing facilities. The drones and cruise missiles flew so low and with such stealth that neither their takeoff nor their impending attack was detected in time by Saudi or U.S. radar. The pro-Iranian Houthi militia in Yemen claimed responsibility for the raid. That was as believable as saying that Santa Claus did it.

  • Some Israeli strategists argue that this surprise attack was the Middle East’s “Pearl Harbor.”

  • “A total of 20 cruise missiles and drones were used in the attack,” Even wrote in Haaretz on Sunday. “Drone wreckage discovered in Saudi Arabia shows that the Iranians are manufacturing and operating drones so advanced (with jet engines and significant stealth capabilities) that they do not lag behind Israeli capabilities in this field. Seventeen targets incurred a direct hit in this concentrated bombardment.

  • Considering the 20 projectiles whose debris was found at the attack site, that’s an 85-percent success rate, which indicates the very high capability and reliability of the technology that was used.”

  • Photos of the aftermath, Even added, “show the precision that was achieved in the attack. Each one of the spherical gas tankers in the picture was hit in the center. The pictures also show that the strike precision was one meter. The Iranians, or their proxies, showed that they can hit specific targets with great precision and from a distance of hundreds of kilometers. We have to accept the fact that we are now vulnerable to such a strike.” Even wrote in Haaretz

  • Even’s conclusion: Operations at Israel’s “Dimona nuclear reactor should be halted. It has now been shown to be vulnerable, and the harm it could cause would likely exceed its benefits.”

  • In the 2006 war between Hezbollah and Israel, Iranian-armed Hezbollah had to fire scores of dumb, unguided, surface-to-surface rockets of limited range in hopes of damaging a single Israeli target, mostly in the northern half of the country. Ditto Hamas in Gaza.

  • But since 2016, Iran has been transferring kits to Hezbollah to convert its dumb rockets into precision-guided missiles — like those that perfectly punctured the Saudi oil facilities. It’s not clear how many Hezbollah now has, but if it has only 150 it could hit all of the important economic and military targets in Israel. That’s Israel’s ports, airports, power plants, nuclear reactor, Intel computer chip factory and its network of software and technology companies. It could cripple Israel.


Bill Gates : "je prédis que la santé des humains va changer drastiquement pour le meilleur dans les 20 prochaines années pour ces 2 raisons"

  • The country with the worst health outcomes today is better off than the best country a century ago.

  • 1. My first prediction is, we will solve malnutrition and significantly reduce the number of nutrition-related deaths (millions of lives to be saved)

    • Malnutrition is responsible for about half childhood mortality.

    • If you don’t get enough nutrition during the first 3 years of life, you don't develop properly—physically or mentally, you're stunted

    • despite all of the amazing progress we’ve made on health, 20% of kids under 5 today are stunted

    • The good news is that we have solutions.

      • You can fix a micronutrient imbalance with fortified foods or supplements.

      • An infection can be treated with medicine or prevented with vaccines.

      • And there are many ways we can improve poor maternal health, including by boosting gender equality and supplementing maternal nutrition.  

    • until recently, fixing the microbiome has been a complete mystery to us. We’ve learned a lot about it in recent years, and will continue to learn more over the next two decades.

      • your body literally cannot break down certain types of plant fibers without an assist from the bacteria in your gut.

      • in 2013, a landmark study of twins indicated that your microbiome is not just a byproduct of your health but can also influence it. It was the first big clue that we might be able to fix malnutrition by changing the gut microbiome.

      • You’re probably familiar with one of these interventions: probiotics. In the future, we’ll be able to create next-generation probiotic pills that contain ideal combinations of bacteria—even ones that are tailored to your specific gut.

  • 2. "Over the next 20 years, I predict that every nation on the planet will have broadened its healthcare focus from just saving lives to also improving lives."

    •   "we’ll also have virtually eliminated malaria by 2040. Many of the countries still above the 50% preventable deaths threshold are also the places where malaria kills the most people every year. For example, in Niger, it’s responsible for 17% of all deaths.

      • For a long time, we thought treatment (developing a simple vaccine) was the best approach

      • The reality is a lot more complicated. What we’ve learned in recent years is that the key to stopping malaria is vector control—and for malaria, the vector is mosquitoes.

      • Maps that show the malaria rate with a  1x1 km square resolution using data from individual health facilities, instead of blanketing entire regions with bed nets and other anti-malaria measures, enable health officials can target efforts where they will do the most good.

      • Gene editing lets us target only the bad malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Inserting a gene that prevents these bad mosquitoes from reproducing would buy us time to cure all the people in an area of malaria. Then we could let the mosquito population return without the parasite.

    • We’ll also finally turn the tide of the HIV epidemic, thanks in large part to a new generation of highly potent and super long acting HIV drugs.

      • I’m also optimistic about that we’ll one day develop an effective HIV vaccine—which could remove your risk of contracting the virus entirely.


Contre-intuitif : l'électrisation ne change pas la vie des pauvres autant qu'on le pensait (tiré de The Economist)

  • Almost 140 years after Thomas Edison began selling filament light bulbs, just under 1bn people worldwide still lack access to electricity

  • If electricity and light truly transformed people’s lives, it might make sense to offer large subsidies for solar systems and grid connections or even to give them away. It might bring benefits that people could not have imagined. Or they might know about the benefits but be unable to afford the upfront cost. But there is little evidence of this.

  • A study found that Rwandans who were given solar lamps responded by lighting their households more brightly, for more hours each day. They burned less kerosene, and their children studied a little more, especially at night. But the adults’ working lives changed hardly at all. Solar lamps appear not to rescue people from poverty.

  • Nor even does a grid connection. A detailed study of rural Tanzania, where America’s Millennium Challenge Corporation built power lines and subsidised connections, found little effect on adults’ welfare.

  • Offering cheap connections cut the proportion of people living on less than $2 a day from 93% to 90%—hardly a transformation.

  • Children’s lives changed, but perhaps not in a good way. Those who were connected went from watching almost no television to one and a half hours a day, and did even less housework than before.

  • Another study, of Bangladesh, found that the benefits of grid power accrue mainly to better-off households. Hussain Samad and Fan Zhang of the World Bank estimate that connections boost the spending of people in the top fifth of the earnings scale by 11%. People in the bottom fifth see a benefit of 4%.

  • many people who lack electricity no longer rely on kerosene. One Rwandan woman who is picking up her first solar lamp at a distribution point in Nzaratsi says that she has hitherto used simple torches—just batteries wired to LEDs. These are extremely cheap, costing about $0.25, and are available from village shops.

  • To spend a lot of scarce cash bringing power to people, in the hope that benefits will turn up, hardly seems enlightened.


Lambda School : cette école n'est pas juste gratuite, elle paie ses étudiants pendant leurs études, et 85% trouvent en 6 mois max un job payant au moins $50/an

  • Lambda School fondée en 2017, "Lambda School just turned two, and in that time we went from zero to 3,000 concurrently enrolled students."

  • L'école apprend à coder à des débutants complets en un temps record grâce à un programme en ligne très intense

  • In the US, the cost of 4 years of tuition (frais de scolarité) at public universities ranges from about $38,000 in-state to nearly $96,000 out-of-state.

  • At private schools, the average is $130,000. That doesn’t include housing, books, meals, and more.

  • When you compare that to tuition in 1989, the cost of higher education has ballooned nearly 8 times faster than average wages.

  • More than 40% of college graduates take positions that don’t require a degree, and more than 11% of young graduates in 2018 were underemployed.

  • With our current Income Share Agreements (ISA) model, students don’t pay a cent until they land a job in their field earning more than $50K. Only then do they pay us 17% of their salary for 24 months, capped at $30K total.

  •  Students can apply for a $2K per month salary to help cover living expenses during the nine-month full-time program. They then pay back 10% of their salary for a five year period (instead of 17% for two years).

  • We consciously made Lambda School an all-online program, in the pursuit of eliminating risk. If you combine flexible repayment models (like ISAs) with online access, the student body starts to look a lot different. Last year, one student finished Lambda School using a mobile hotspot in the back room of the failing mattress store where he worked.

  • Source : tribune du fondateur Austen Allred


La France va lancer dès novembre Alicem, qui permet de se créer un identifiant en ligne authentifié grâce à la reconnaissance faciale (Bloomberg )

  • Privacy, absence of consent and security among concerns raised

  • With the move, France will join states around the world rushing to create “digital identities” to give citizens secure access to everything from their taxes and banks to social security and utility bills.

  • France says the ID system won’t be used to keep tabs on residents. Unlike in China and Singapore, the country won’t be integrating the facial recognition biometric into citizens’ identity databases. In fact, the interior ministry, which developed the Alicem app, says the facial recognition data collected will be deleted when the enrollment process is over.

  • France is poised to become the first European country to use facial recognition technology to give citizens a secure digital identity -- whether they want it or not.

  • Saying it wants to make the state more efficient, President Emmanuel Macron’s government is pushing through plans to roll out an ID program, dubbed Alicem, in November, earlier than an initial Christmas target.

  • The Android-only app with the blazon of the French republic, which Bloomberg was able to consult, will be the only way for residents to create a legal digital ID and facial recognition will be its sole enabler. An ID will be created through a one-time enrollment that works by comparing a user’s photo in their biometric passport to a selfie video taken on the app that will capture expressions, movements and angles. The phone and the passport will communicate through their embedded chips.

  • Security is another worry. Authorities say the security of Alicem is at the “highest, state level.” Yet in April, Robert Baptiste, a hacker who goes by Elliot Alderson on Twitter, was able to access one of the government’s “highly secure” apps within 75 minutes, raising questions about the resilience of the state’s online security.

  • Le texte complet des articles du décret autorisant la création d'un moyen d'identification électronique dénommé « Authentification en ligne certifiée sur mobile » sur Légifrance.gouv

  • Voir aussi l'article du Figaro, qui ne fait que rebondir sur celui de Bloomberg : Qu’est-ce qu’Alicem, le projet d’identification par reconnaissance faciale de l’État français?


Par manque de place, j’ai mis le résumé de ces 4 autres news ci-dessous au format bullet points sur ParlonsFutur.com accessible en cliquant ici :

  • Avenir du travail : cette étude portant sur 36 500 entreprises et 5 millions de salariés entre 2000 et 2016 aux Pays-Bas montrent les ravages progressifs de l'automatisation sur l'emploi

  • L'économiste Mariana Mazzucato explique comment on sous-estime le rôle moteur de l'état-stratège dans le succès des géants de la tech et annonce ses 5 missions que le Parlement Européen a votées

  • Voici comment John Deere, entreprise américaine fondée en 1837 et spécialisée dans la fabrication de matériel agricole se révolutionne grâce à l'IA

  • Ces chercheurs estiment l'impact sur le monde d'une guerre nucléaire Inde-Pakistan


Dessert : voici quelques-uns de mes derniers tweets (retrouvez-moi sur Twitter ici) :

  • In China pork matters—the country consumes as much hog meat as the rest of the world combined. China even has frozen-pork reserves, that it can release in an emergency

  • A former ruler of Equatorial Guinea, Francisco Macías Nguema, kept a large portion of the country’s foreign reserves in a bamboo hut in his garden. He forgot to waterproof the hut, alas, and much of his stash rotted (a pourri).

  • Adam Smith's ideal of a “free market” was one free from rents, not from the state.

  • A robot that was supposed to learn how to grasp a particular object was trained on images of what it looks like to grasp that object, so it decided that it was good enough just to put its hand between the cam & the object, so that it looked like the robot was grasping the object

  • In China, a face-recognition system used by police sent a jaywalking (fait de traverser la rue en dehors du passage piéton) ticket to an innocent person who happened to be a well-known entrepreneur when it saw her pic on the side of a bus, not realizing that a pic on a moving bus was not the same thing as the entrepreneur herself.

  • SpaceX built the Starship first prototype in just a few months, out in the open, exposed to the elements — a far cry from the giant, sterile hangars where NASA constructs its multiyear projects.

  • Michael Collins, command-module pilot for Apollo 11, remembers: “I thought that when we went someplace they’d say, ‘Well, congratulations. You Americans finally did it, and instead of that, unanimously the reaction was, ‘We did it. We humans finally left this planet.”

  • In 2018, the most important scientific conference for deep learning sold out in twelve minutes.


Quelques mots sur le cuisto

C'est tout pour cette semaine !

Vous avez trouvé ce modeste travail de synthèse un peu utile ? En guise de remerciement, pourriez-vous s’il vous plaît forwarder cet email à quelques ami(e)s susceptibles d'être intéressé(e)s ? Ce serait bien sympa!

Merci et bonne semaine,

Thomas